Interface KVTransaction

All Superinterfaces:
All Known Implementing Classes:
ArrayKVTransaction, BerkeleyKVTransaction, BranchedKVTransaction, ByteArrayLMDBKVTransaction, CachingKVTransaction, FallbackKVTransaction, FoundationKVTransaction, LevelDBKVTransaction, LMDBKVTransaction, MVStoreKVTransaction, PrefixKVTransaction, RaftKVTransaction, SimpleKVTransaction, SnapshotKVTransaction, SpannerKVTransaction, SQLKVTransaction, XMLKVTransaction, XodusKVTransaction

public interface KVTransaction extends KVStore
KVDatabase transaction API.

Provides a transactional view of a KVStore.

Instances may throw KVTransactionException during any operation if the transaction cannot be continued. In particular, StaleTransactionException is thrown by a transaction that is no longer open, and RetryTransactionException is thrown when the transaction should be retried due to a transient problem (such as a write conflict with another transaction).

When RetryTransactionException is thrown by commit(), the transaction may have actually been committed. Therefore, transactions should be written to be idempotent.

No matter what state it is in, instances must support invoking rollback() at any time.

If an instance throws a KVTransactionException, the transaction should be implicitly rolled back. Any subsequent operation other than rollback() should throw StaleTransactionException.

Except for rollback() and methods that just query status, implementations must throw StaleTransactionException if commit() or rollback() has already been invoked, or if the KVTransaction instance is no longer usable for some other reason. In particular, implementations should throw TransactionTimeoutException if an operation is attempted on a transaction that has been held open past some maximum allowed time limit.

Implementations are responsible for ensuring modifications to byte[] arrays after method invocations do no harm. This usually means byte[] array parameters and return values must be copied.

Implementations are not required to support accessing keys that start with 0xff, and if not may throw IllegalArgumentException if such keys are accessed.

Note: for some implementations, the data read from a transaction that is never commit()'ed is not guaranteed to be up to date.

  • Method Details

    • getKVDatabase

      KVDatabase getKVDatabase()
      Get the KVDatabase with which this instance is associated.
      associated database
    • setTimeout

      void setTimeout(long timeout)
      Change the timeout for this transaction from its default value (optional operation).
      timeout - transaction timeout in milliseconds, or zero for unlimited
      UnsupportedOperationException - if this transaction does not support timeouts
      IllegalArgumentException - if timeout is negative
      StaleTransactionException - if this transaction is no longer usable
    • isReadOnly

      boolean isReadOnly()
      Determine whether this transaction is read-only.

      Default is false.

      true if this instance is read-only
      StaleTransactionException - if this transaction is no longer usable
    • setReadOnly

      void setReadOnly(boolean readOnly)
      Enable or disable read-only mode.

      Read-only transactions allow mutations, but all changes are discarded on commit().

      Some implementations may impose one or more of the following restrictions on this method:

      • setReadOnly() may only be invoked prior to accessing data;
      • setReadOnly() may only be invoked prior to mutating data; and/or
      • Once set to read-only, a transaction may not be set back to read-write
      If one of the above constraints is violated, an IllegalStateException is thrown.

      Note: for some implementations, the data read from a transaction that is never commit()'ed is not guaranteed to be up to date, even if that transaction is read-only.

      Default is false.

      readOnly - read-only setting
      IllegalStateException - if the implementation doesn't support changing read-only status at this time
      StaleTransactionException - if this transaction is no longer usable
    • watchKey

      Future<Void> watchKey(byte[] key)
      Watch a key to monitor for changes in its value.

      When this method is invoked, key's current value (if any) as read by this transaction is remembered. The returned Future completes if and when a different value for key is subsequently committed by some transaction, including possibly this one. This includes creation or deletion of the key.

      Key watches outlive the transaction in which they are created, persisting until they complete or are cancel()'ed. When a KVDatabase is KVDatabase.stop()'ed, all outstanding key watches are implicitly cancel()'ed.


      Key watches are not without overhead; applications should avoid overuse. For example, consider creating a single key that is used to consolidate modifications to some set of keys; at the Permazen layer, modification to multiple objects and/or fields can detected and consolidated using an @OnChange method that increments a single Counter field, whose key is then watched (to determine the key corresponding to a Java model object field, use PermazenField.getKey()).

      Conceptually, detection of changes behaves as if by a background thread that periodically creates a new transaction and reads the key's value (the actual implementation will likely be more efficient). This means a change that is quickly reverted could be missed, and that multiple changes could occur before notification. In addition, spurious notifications may occur, where the key's value has not changed.

      A key watch is only guaranteed to be valid if the transaction in which it was created successfully commits. In particular, nothing is specified about how or whether Futures associated with failed transactions complete, so the Futures returned by this method should not be relied on until after a successful commit (perhaps with the help of a transaction callback).

      Key watch support is optional; instances that don't support key watches throw UnsupportedOperationException. Some implementations may only support watching a key that already exists.

      Note: many KVDatabase implementations actually return a ListenableFuture. However, listeners must not perform any long running or blocking operations. Also, because the semantics of RetryTransactionException allow for the possibility that the transaction actually did commit, "duplicate" listener notifications could occur.

      Key watch Futures that have not completed yet, but are no longer needed, must be cancel()'ed to avoid memory leaks.

      Key watch support is indepdendent of whether the transaction is read-only.

      key - the key to watch
      a Future that returns key when the value associated with key is modified
      StaleTransactionException - if this transaction is no longer usable
      RetryTransactionException - if this transaction must be retried and is no longer usable
      KVDatabaseException - if an unexpected error occurs
      UnsupportedOperationException - if this instance does not support key watches
      IllegalArgumentException - if key starts with 0xff and such keys are not supported
      IllegalArgumentException - if key is null
      See Also:
    • commit

      void commit()
      Commit this transaction.

      Note that if this method throws a RetryTransactionException, the transaction was either successfully committed or rolled back. In either case, this instance is no longer usable.

      Note also for some implementations, even read-only transactions must be commit()'ed in order for the data accessed during the transaction to be guaranteed to be up to date.

      StaleTransactionException - if this transaction is no longer usable
      RetryTransactionException - if this transaction must be retried and is no longer usable
    • rollback

      void rollback()
      Cancel this transaction, if not already canceled.

      After this method returns, this instance is no longer usable.

      Note: for some implementations, rolling back a transaction invalidates guarantees about the the data read during the transaction being up to date, even if the transaction was setReadOnly().

      This method may be invoked at any time, even after a previous invocation of commit() or rollback(), in which case the invocation will be ignored. In particular, this method must not throw StaleTransactionException.

    • withWeakConsistency

      default void withWeakConsistency(Runnable action)
      Apply weaker transaction consistency while performing the given action, if supported.

      Some implementations support reads with weaker consistency guarantees. These reads generate fewer transaction conflicts but return possibly out-of-date information. Depending on the implementation, when operating in this mode writes may not be supported and may generate an IllegalStateException or just be ignored.

      The weaker consistency is only applied for the current thread, and it ends when this method returns.

      This method is for experts only; inappropriate use can result in a corrupted database. You should not make any changes to the database after this method returns based on any information read by the action.

      The implementation in KVTransaction just performs action normally.

      action - the action to perform
      IllegalArgumentException - if action is null
    • readOnlySnapshot

      CloseableKVStore readOnlySnapshot()
      Create a read-only snapshot of the database content represented by this transaction.

      The returned CloseableKVStore should be treated as read-only. It may not actually be read-only, but if it's not, then any changes should have no effect on this instance. The returned CloseableKVStore must be completely independent from this transaction (subsequent changes to either one do not affect the other).

      Note: as with any other information extracted from a KVTransaction, the returned content should not be considered valid until this transaction has been successfully committed.

      The returned CloseableKVStore should be promply close()'d when no longer needed to release any underlying resources. In particular, the caller must ensure that the CloseableKVStore is close()'d even if this transaction's commit fails. This may require adding a transaction synchronization callback, etc.

      This is an optional method; only some underlying key/value store technologies can efficiently support it. Implementations should throw UnsupportedOperationException if not supported.

      independent, read-only copy of this transaction's entire database content
      UnsupportedOperationException - if this method is not supported
      StaleTransactionException - if this transaction is no longer usable
      RetryTransactionException - if this transaction must be retried and is no longer usable